Plant Mini Course part one

 

OBJECTIVE SUMMARY

Ch 29  Plant Colonization of Land

Can You;

1.                    compare and contrast members of the plant kingdom from the kingdoms?

2.                   complete a plant life cycle diagram including labels of plant parts, and gametophyte types ?

3.                   describe the various ideas about plant evolution on land? 

4.                   describe the differences between plant classification categories and animal classification categories?

5.                  list the plant divisions; provide real examples for each, and list the characteristics of each division? 

6.                  cite the studies that provide data on plant evolution and origins?

7.                   list adaptations that have made it possible for bryophytes to occupy land?

8.                   describe how even though bryophytes are land plants they require wet environments to survive? 

9.                   compare and contrast three division of Bryophyta?

10.                diagram a complete life cycle of moss? 

11.                 compare and contrast the environments of aquatic and terrestrial plants?

12.                cite the studies done that provide information on the evolution of Bryophyta vs vascular plants

13.                describe the adaptations that have allowed vascular plants to become successful on land? 

14.                compare and contrast the four divisions of seedless vascular plants?

15.                compare and contrast  homosporous and heterosporous?

16.                compare and contrast  spore, sporophyte, sporophyll and sporangium?

17.                diagram a complete life cycle a fern?

18.                compare and contrast  the life cycles of mosses and ferns?

 

Ch 30  Evolution of Seed Plants

Can You;

1.                    describe the adaptations of seed plants that have contributed to their success on land?

2.                   compare and contrast the four divisions of gymnosperms.

3.                   compare and contrast  the male and female cones of a pine?

4.                   diagram a pine life cycle including labels of plant parts, and gametophyte and sporophyte generations? 

5.                   compare and contrast the life cycles of ferns and pines?

6.                   compare and contrast  pollination and fertilization?

7.                   diagram a pine seed labeling the old sporophye, gametophyte, and new sporophyte?

8.                   describe the adaptations of pines to dry conditions? 

9.                   list and provide real examples for the classes of Anthophyta?

10.              compare and contrast the life cycles of mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants ?

11.                 identify some adaptations of vascular tissues that aided angiosperm success? 

12.                describe how reproductive success was increased by the evolution of flowers? 

13.                diagram a flower including all structures and their functions?  

14.                discuss the evolutionary pathways of flower design in angiosperms? 

15.                discuss various types of fruit design and how each is designed to aid in seed dispersal? 

16.                compare and contrast the life cycles of angiosperms and gymnosperms? 

17.                diagram a life cycle of an angiosperm including structures and functions?

18.                discuss the significance of multiple ova and the formation of the seed?

19.                compare and contrast the seeds of angiosperms and gymnosperms? 

20.               discuss why the evolutionary pathway of angiosperms is puzzling to botanists? 

21.                discuss the concept of co-evolution with regards to plants and animals? 

 

Plant Minicourse part two

 

Ch 35  PLANT STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OBECTIVES’

Can you;

1.                    identify the characteristics of an angiosperm?

2.                   compare and contrast monocots and dicots?

3.                   explain why root and shoot systems are important to plants and how they work together?

4.                   compare and contrast taproot and fibrous root systems?

5.                   compare and contrast stolons and rhizomes?

6.                   describe the growth of plant cells? 

7.                   compare and contrast parenchyma and collenchyma cells in terms of structure and function?

8.                   compare and contrast the two types of sclerenchyma cells?

9.                   compare and contrast water-conducting cells and sieve-tube members in terms of structure and function?

10.                compare and contrast simple tissues and complex tissues?

11.                 explain the function of a cuticle and why it is present on certain parts of the plant and absent on other parts? 

12.                compare and contrast the functions of the dermal tissue system, vascular tissue system and ground tissue system?

13.                compare and contrast annual, biennial, and perennial plants?

14.                describe how cell division differs in root cells vs other plant cells? 

15.                describe the importance of the following types of plant tissues;

a.        endodermis

b.       apical meristem

c.       tracheids

d.       vessel elements

 

16.                describe the differential arrangement of vascular tissues in roots and shoots?

17.                detail the formation of wood?

18.                diagram the structure of:

a.       a root,

b.       a stem,

c.       a leaf.

 

Ch 36  Transport Objectives

Can You:

1.                    diagram the path of water and minerals from the root to the shoot? 

2.                   discuss historical research that has lead to the understanding of plant biology?

3.                   discuss the concept of the proton pump?

4.                   explain how the Casparian strip functions?

5.                   discuss how solutes are moved throughout the plant from section to section including structures and natural forces?

6.                   explain the term water potential, give real examples of it meaning, and discuss the causes for changes in water potential?  

7.                   Predict the direction of net water movement based upon differences between  water potential of a plant cell and varying osmotic environmental conditions.

8.                   describe guttation and how it is related to root pressure?

9.                   discuss how xylem sap move up a tree, using the transpiration-cohesion-adhesion theory? 

10.                discuss the importance of water potential gradients in allowing water to enter plant roots passively? 

11.                 compare and contrast C3 and C4 plants?

12.                explain the relationship between guard cells, photosynthesis and transpiration? 

13.                explain the relationship between potassium levels and guard cells?  

14.                identify the cues that cause stomata to open?

15.                identify conditions that cause stomata to close? 

16.                identify various adaptations of plants to extreme environments, including xerophytes, and CAM plants?

17.                explain the source to sink phenomenon, how it works, its purpose, structures and forces involved?

 

Ch 37 PLANT NUTRITION OBJECTIVES

1.                    describe the composition of a plant in terms of water, organic, and inorganic matter? 

2.                   discuss research that has lead to the understanding of plant nutrition? 

3.                   compare and contrast macronutrient and micronutrient?

4.                   list the macronutrients required by plants, including their function, and symptoms of plants lacking in?

5.                   list the micronutrients required by plants, including their function? .

6.                   describe soil formation?

7.                   describe the different types of soils in terms of particle size, fertility, texture, water content, and plant survival? 

8.                   explain why it isn’t possible for plants to extract all of the water from soil? 

9.                   explain how plants initiate cation exchange plays and why it is important in plant nutrition?  

10.                compare and contrast artificial ecosystem and natural ecosystem soil management? 

11.                 explain the importance of the following topics in agricultural resources:  mineral deficiency, commercial fertilizers, irrigation problems, erosion, and crop rotation?

12.                explain nitrogen fixation, including the formula and draw the nitrogen cycle? 

13.                compare and contrast nitrogen-fixing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria?

14.                list all usable forms of nitrogen and their use by the plant?

15.                describe the mutualistic relationship between a legume and its nitrogen-fixing bacteria?

16.                explain why the synthesis of leghemoglobin is evidence for coevolution?/

17.                cite research methods used to improve the quality and quantity of proteins in plant crops?

18.                compare and contrast modes of nutrition that have evolved among plants?

 

Ch 38    PLANT REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES

Can you:

1.                    draw and label the angiosperm life cycle?

2.                   identify the floral parts of the flower?

3.                   label the following structures and list their function from a diagram or a real flower: 

a. Sepals      c. Stamen: filament and anther

b. Petals      d. Carpel: style, ovary, ovule and stigma

4.                   compare and contrast the following terms: complete and incomplete flowers: perfect and imperfect flowers: monoecious and dioecious plants, monocot and dicot seeds,

5.                   compare and contrast the generation, structure, and process spores and gametes are produced?

6.                   describe the formation of a pollen grain in angiosperms and identify the various nuclei involved?

7.                   explain how an embryo sac is formed and the ultimate destination of its cells?  

8.                   compare and contrast pollination and fertilization?

9.                   identify the various methods used to transfer pollen between flowers? 

10.                explain why self pollination isn’t an issue and how this increases genetic variation? 

11.                 explain double fertilization and the ultimate destination of the fertilizing pollen grains?

12.                describe plant development from the first mitotic division to an embryonic plant?

13.                draw a seed and identify each structure and its function? 

14.                identify the various functions of fruit and explain how fruits form?

15.                compare and contrast various fruit types?

16.                discuss why seed dormancy is beneficial and identify conditions when dormancy is broken? 

17.                in the process of germination, identify the fate of the radicle, shoot tip, hypocotyl, epicotyl, and cotyledons?

18.                compare and contrast sexual reproduction and vegetative reproduction?

19.                compare and contrast sexual and asexual reproduction in plants in terms of natural selection, and evolution? 

 

 

Ch 39 CONTROL SYSTEMS IN PLANTS

Can you;

1.                    cite past research involving phototrophism, including the researchers and their conclusions? 

2.                   compare and contrast five classes of plant hormones?

3.                   describe how hormones in general cause effect on designated tissues or organs? 

4.                   describe how auxin is transported in a cell, how it initiates cell elongation, cell differentiation and lateral branching, and fruit growth? 

5.                   discuss in terms of plant physiology, why 2,4-D is an effective weed killer?

6.                   describe how cytokinin affects cell division and cell differentiation and lateral branching? 

7.                   identify how apical dominance is controlled? 

8.                   discuss the role of gibberellins in stem elongation, fruit growth, and seed germination?

9.                   discuss the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in preparation for dormancy, and times of stress? 

10.                discuss the role of ethylene in plant senescence, fruit ripening and leaf abscission?

11.                 identify several check and balance factors that play a role in plant growth and development?

12.                discuss experiments that helped broaden our knowledge base of plant control systems?

13.                describe the components of a  general signal-transduction pathway.

14.                identify the triggers, chemicals etc of specific signal transduction pathways including, but not limited to; phototrophism, gravitrophism and photoperiodism?

 

15.                describe the concept of a “biological clock”, the regulation and maintenance of such a system?

16.                compare and contrast short-day plants, long-day plants, and day-neutral plants; give common examples of each; and explain how they depend upon critical night length.

17.                in terms of pathogens, describe the strategies that plants have evolved to deal with virulent and non virulent pathogens?

 

 


Plant Glossary  - Same rules as previous chapters

 

abscisic acid (ABA)

action potentials

adventitious

aggregate fruit

alternation of generations

angiosperm                         

annuals

anther                                

antheridium                        

apical meristem

apomixes

apoplast

Aquaporins

archegonium                       

apical dominance

Auxin

axillary bud

bacteroids

bark

blade

brassinosteroids

bulk flow

callus

cambium

carpel                                

Casparian strip

cation exchange

cellular differentiation

charophyte                         

Chemiosmosis

circadian rhythm

coevolution

cohesion

coleoptile

coleorhiza

collenchyma cell

companion cell

complete flower

conifer                               

cork

cortex

cotyledons

cross-pollination

cuticle                                

cytokinins

day-neutral plants

dermal tissue system

development petal

Dicots

dioecious

division                              

double fertilization

ectomycorrhizae

embryo sac

embryo sac

embryophyte                       

endodermis

endosperm

epicotyl

epidermis

epiphytes

essential nutrient

ethylene

fasiform

ferns

fibrous root

filament                             

flower                                

fragmentation

fruit

gametangia                         

gametophyte

gametophyte                       

gibberellin

gravitropism

ground meristem

growth stamen

guard cells

guttation tension

gymnosperm                        

heat-shock

heterosporous

homosporous                       

horizons

hormone

hornworts                           

horsetails

humus

hypersensitive response

hypocotyls

imbibition

imperfect flower

incomplete flower

integuments                        

intermode

lateral meristem

lateral roots

leaves

lenticel

lignin                                  

liverworts                           

loams

long-day plants

lycophytes

macronutrients

megapascals

megaspore

Meristem

mesophyll

micronutrients

microspore

mineral nutrients

Monocots

monoculture

monoecious

morphogenesis

mosses                                

multiple fruit

mycorrhizae

nitrogen fixation

nitrogenase

nitrogen-fixing bacteria

node

nodules

nucellus                              

oligosaccharins

organ-identity

osmosis

ovary                                  

ovule                                  

ovules

parenchyma cell

perennials

perfect flower

pericarp

pericycle

periderm

petal                                  

Petiole

phloem

photoperiodism

photosynthesis ratio

phototropism

phytoalexins

phytochrome

pith

pits

plasmolyze

pollen grains                       

pollination

primary growth

primary plant body

procambium

protoderm

Protoplast

protoplast fusion

quiescent center

radicle

ray

root cap

root hairs

root pressure

root system

scion

sclereids

sclerenchyma cell

scutellum

secondary growth

secondary plant body

secondary products            

seed                                   

seed coat

selective channels

self-incompatible

sepal

short-day plant

sieve plates

sieve-tube members

simple fruit

sleep movements

sporangium                         

sporophylls

sporophyte

sporopollenin                      

sporphyte                           

stamen                                

statoliths

stele

stem

stigma                                

stock

stomata

style

sugar sink

sugar source

symplast

systemic acquired

taproot

terminal bud

thigmomorphogenesis

tonoplast

topsoil

tracheids                            

transfer cells

Translocation

transpiration

Transpiration

transport proteins

Tropisms

turgid

turgor pressure

vascular bundle

vascular cambium

vascular tissue                    

vegetative reproduction

vessel elements

vessel elements                   

water potential

xylem

xylem vessels

zone of cell division

zone of elongation

zone of maturation

 

 


 

Monday

 

Monday

 

31-Jan

 

7-Feb

 

Plant Kingdom

AP transpiration lab

 

Classification / Evolution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuesday

 

Tuesday

 

1-Feb

 

8-Feb

 

Plant Kingdom

Plant Regulation

 Plant Anatomy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wednesday

Wednesday

2-Feb

 

9-Feb

 

Plant Development

Finish up plant day

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thrusday

 

Thrusday

 

3-Feb

 

10-Feb

 

Plant Transport

Plant Kingdom

 

 

Test Day

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday

 

Friday

 

4-Feb

 

11-Feb

 

No School

 

Animal Digestion

Inservice

 Daryn’s Birthday

 

 MICROSCOPIC

 

 

 

 ESSAY

 

 

 

 DUE