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Chapter 11 Study Guide



Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

Gregor Mendel used pea plants to study
a.
flowering.
b.
gamete formation.
c.
the inheritance of traits.
d.
cross-pollination.
 

2. 

Gregor Mendel concluded that traits are
a.
not inherited by offspring.
b.
inherited through the passing of factors from parents to offspring.
c.
determined by dominant factors only.
d.
determined by recessive factors only.
 

3. 

When Gregor Mendel crossed a tall plant with a short plant, the F1 plants inherited
a.
an allele for tallness from each parent.
b.
an allele for tallness from the tall parent and an allele for shortness from the short parent.
c.
an allele for shortness from each parent.
d.
an allele from only the tall parent.
 

4. 

The principle of dominance states that
a.
all alleles are dominant.
b.
all alleles are recessive.
c.
some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
d.
alleles are neither dominant nor recessive.
 

5. 

When Gregor Mendel crossed true-breeding tall plants with true-breeding short plants, all the offspring were tall because
a.
the allele for tall plants is recessive.
b.
the allele for short plants is dominant.
c.
the allele for tall plants is dominant.
d.
they were true-breeding like their parents.
 

6. 

A tall plant is crossed with a short plant. If the tall F1 pea plants are allowed to self-pollinate,
a.
the offspring will be of medium height.
b.
all of the offspring will be tall.
c.
all of the offspring will be short.
d.
some of the offspring will be tall, and some will be short.
 

7. 

In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed with a short plant. Short plants reappeared in the F2 generation because
a.
some of the F2 plants produced gametes that carried the allele for shortness.
b.
the allele for shortness is dominant.
c.
the allele for shortness and the allele for tallness segregated when the F1 plants produced gametes.
d.
they inherited an allele for shortness from one parent and an allele for tallness from the other parent.
 

8. 

In the P generation, a tall plant was crossed with a short plant. If alleles did not segregate during gamete formation,
a.
all of the F1 plants would be short.
b.
some of the F1 plants would be tall and some would be short.
c.
all of the F2 would be short.
d.
all of the F2 plants would be tall.
 

9. 

When you flip a coin, what is the probability that it will come up tails?
a.
1/2
b.
1/4
c.
1/8
d.
1
 

10. 

Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be
a.
hybrid.
b.
homozygous.
c.
heterozygous.
d.
dominant.
 
 
  
Tt
  
T
t





TT

T

TT

Tt

T

TT

Tt

T
=
tall
t
=
short

Figure 11-1
 

11. 

In the Punnett square shown in Figure 11-1, which of the following is true about the offspring resulting from the cross?
a.
About half are expected to be short.
b.
All are expected to be short.
c.
About half are expected to be tall.
d.
All are expected to be tall.
 

12. 

A Punnett square shows all of the following EXCEPT
a.
all possible results of a genetic cross.
b.
the genotypes of the offspring.
c.
the alleles in the gametes of each parent.
d.
the actual results of a genetic cross.
 

13. 

What principle states that during gamete formation genes for different traits separate without influencing each other’s inheritance?
a.
principle of dominance
b.
principle of independent assortment
c.
principle of probabilities
d.
principle of segregation
 
 
RrYy
  

RY

Ry

rY

ry
 
 

RY

RRYY

RRYy

RrYY

RrYy
Seed Shape
R – round
r – wrinkled


RrYy

Ry

RRYy

RRyy

RrYy

Rryy


Seed Color
Y – yellow
y – green

rY

RrYY

RrYy

rrYY

rrYy
 

ry

RrYy

Rryy

rrYy

rryy
 

Figure 11-2
 

14. 

The Punnett square in Figure 11-2 shows that the gene for pea shape and the gene for pea color
a.
assort independently.
b.
are linked.
c.
have the same alleles.
d.
are always homozygous.
 

15. 

How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose genotype was RrYY?
a.
2
b.
4
c.
8
d.
16
 

16. 

If a pea plant that is heterozygous for round, yellow peas (RrYy) is crossed with a pea plant that is homozygous for round peas but heterozygous for yellow peas (RRYy), how many different phenotypes are their offspring expected to show?
a.
2
b.
4
c.
8
d.
16
 

17. 

Situations in which one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene are called
a.
multiple alleles.
b.
incomplete dominance.
c.
polygenic inheritance.
d.
multiple genes.
 

18. 

A cross of a red cow (RR) with a white bull (WW) produces all roan offspring (RRWW). This type of inheritance is known as
a.
incomplete dominance.
b.
polygenic inheritance.
c.
codominance.
d.
multiple alleles.
 

19. 

Variation in human skin color is a result of
a.
incomplete dominance.
b.
codominance.
c.
polygenic traits.
d.
multiple alleles.
 

20. 

The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol
a.
Z.
b.
X.
c.
N.
d.
Y.
 

21. 

If an organism’s diploid number is 12, its haploid number is
a.
12.
b.
6.
c.
24.
d.
3.
 

22. 

Gametes have
a.
homologous chromosomes.
b.
twice the number of chromosomes found in body cells.
c.
two sets of chromosomes.
d.
one allele for each gene.
 

23. 

Gametes are produced by the process of
a.
mitosis.
b.
meiosis.
c.
crossing-over.
d.
replication.
 
 
ch_11_study_guide_files/i0270000.jpg

Figure 11-3
 

24. 

What is shown in Figure 11-3?
a.
independent assortment
b.
anaphase I of meiosis
c.
crossing-over
d.
replication
 

25. 

What happens between meiosis I and meiosis II that reduces the number of chromosomes?
a.
Crossing-over occurs.
b.
Metaphase occurs.
c.
Replication occurs twice.
d.
Replication does not occur.
 

26. 

Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of
a.
diploid cells.
b.
haploid cells.
c.
2N daughter cells.
d.
body cells.
 

27. 

Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of
a.
two genetically identical cells.
b.
four genetically different cells.
c.
four genetically identical cells.
d.
two genetically different cells.
 

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 

28. 

The plants that Gregor Mendel crossed to produce the F1 generation made up the ____________________ generation.
 

 

29. 

The different forms of a gene are called ____________________.
 

 

30. 

If the allele for shortness in pea plants were dominant, all the pea plants in Mendel’s F1 generation would have been ____________________.
 

 

31. 

____________________ is the likelihood that a particular event will occur.
 

 
 
  
Tt
  
T
t





TT

T

TT

Tt

T

TT

Tt

T
=
tall
t
=
short

Figure 11-1
 

32. 

In the Punnett square shown in Figure 11-1, the genotypes of the offspring are ____________________.
 

 

33. 

Pea plants that are TT, ____________________, or tt have different genotypes.
 

 

34. 

When two heterozygous tall pea plants are crossed, the expected genotype ratio of the offspring is _________________________.
 

 

35. 

If pea plants that are homozygous for round, yellow seeds (RRYY) were crossed with pea plants that are heterozygous for round, yellow seeds (RrYy), the expected phenotype(s) of the offspring would be _________________________.
 

 

36. 

An organism’s gametes have ____________________ the number of chromosomes found in the organism’s body cells.
 

 

Short Answer
 

37. 

Define genetics.
 

38. 

How many recessive alleles for a trait must an organism inherit in order to show that trait?
 

39. 

A pea plant heterozygous for height and seed color (TtYy) is crossed with a pea plant heterozygous for height but homozygous recessive for seed color (Ttyy). If 80 offspring are produced, how many are expected to be tall and have yellow seeds?
 

40. 

How many sets of chromosomes are in a diploid cell?
 

41. 

What happens to the number of chromosomes per cell during meiosis?
 

Essay
 

42. 

A pea plant with yellow seeds was crossed with a plant with green seeds. The F1 generation produced plants with yellow seeds. Explain why green seeds reappeared in the F2 generation.
 

43. 

You wish to determine whether a tall pea plant is homozygous or heterozygous for tallness. What cross should you perform to arrive at your answer? Explain your choice of cross.
 

44. 

A florist wants to guarantee that the seeds she sells will produce only pink-flowered four o’clock plants. How should she obtain the seeds?
 

Other
 
 
USING SCIENCE SKILLS
Heterozygous male guinea pigs with black, rough hair (BbRr) are crossed with heterozygous female guinea pigs with black, rough hair (BbRr). The incomplete Punnett square in Figure 11-4 shows the expected results from the cross.

BbRr
  

BR

Br

bR

br
 
 

BR

BBRR

BBRr

BbRR

BbRr
Hair Color
B – black
b – white


BbRr

Br

BBRr

BBrr

BbRr

Bbrr


Hair Texture
R – rough
r – smooth

bR

BbRR

BbRr
×

bbRr
 

br

BbRr

Bbrr

bbRr

bbrr
 

Figure 11-4
 

45. 

Using Tables and Graphs Identify the genotype of the offspring that would be represented in the square labeled X in Figure 11-4.
 

46. 

Using Tables and Graphs Identify the phenotype of the offspring represented in the square labeled X in Figure 11-4.
 

47. 

Analyzing Data In Figure 11-4, what are the different phenotypes of the offspring?
 

48. 

Analyzing Data In Figure 11-4, what are the genotypes of the offspring that have black, rough hair?
 

49. 

Calculating What fraction of the offspring in Figure 11-4 would be expected to have white, smooth hair?
 
 
USING SCIENCE SKILLS

ch_11_study_guide_files/i0600000.jpg

Figure 11-5
 

50. 

Interpreting Graphics In Figure 11-5, what is the genotype of the pink-flowered snapdragons?
 

51. 

Inferring Explain whether the alleles in Figure 11-5 show dominance, incomplete dominance, or codominance.
 
 
USING SCIENCE SKILLS

ch_11_study_guide_files/i0630000.jpg

Figure 11-6
 

52. 

Inferring If the stages shown in Figure 11-6 are taking place in a female animal, how many eggs will result from stage G? Explain your answer.
 

53. 

Interpreting Graphics List the stages in Figure 11-6 in which the cells are 2N and those in which the cells are N.
 



 
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